High compression engines make more power with fewer carbon emissions. But they also can suffer from pre-ignition or knocking that causes internal engine damage unless they burn fuel that is up to the task. One way to make higher compression ratios possible is by increasing the octane rating of the fuel we feed our infernal combustion engines. One way to do that is to increase the amount of ethanol that gets blended into the gasoline we use here in the United States.
Nissan is experimenting with a new kind of fuel cell, one that runs on bio-ethanol instead of hydrogen. The new system isn’t perfected yet. It runs at higher temperatures than traditional fuel cells, so it takes a while to get hot enough to work at maximum efficiency. But ethanol is plentiful and cheap. Liquid hydrogen is expensive and refueling stations are as rare as hippies at a Donald Trump rally.
Pity the poor Ted Cruz. A successful candidate today has to be as nimble as a Nureyev and as changeable as a chameleon to get enough votes to win election. Cruz has gone on record opposing the Renewable Fuel Standard. That’s the requirement farmers shoved down the throats of American motorists 30 years ago that requires ethanol be added to our gasoline.
According to Mother Nature Network, Cruz says he favors a “free and fair energy marketplace.” That means “We should embrace all of the energy resources with which God has blessed America: oil and gas, nuclear, wind, solar, and biofuels and ethanol. But Washington shouldn’t be picking winners and losers.”
In theory, ethanol will help reduce carbon emissions and shower us with a panoply of other wondrous benefits. In fact, according to a United Nations report, it doesn’t do any of that stuff. Instead, it reduces fuel economy at a time when the government is pushing car makers hard to raise the average miles per gallon of the cars they build.
The Energy Information Agency reports that when ethanol content was increased from 2% in 1993 to 10% percent in 2013, it resulted in a decline of about 3 percent in the average energy content per gallon of gasoline over that 20 year period. If the government is serious about improving our national gas mileage, it should eliminate the Renewable Fuel Standard, whose only real purpose is to put money in the pocket of corn farmers.
Iowa has a lot of farmers and they grow a lot of corn. They love forcing ordinary citizens to buy all their lovely corn. They are none to pleased with a presidential candidate who is open to reducing the amount of ethanol American drivers are required to buy. According to the Washington Post,
“The ethanol lobby is bird-dogging Cruz everywhere he goes. Upset by his pledge to phase out the Renewable Fuel Standard, employees of an industry funded group — which is run by the son of the popular Republican governor — follow Cruz everywhere he goes in a camper. They hand out flyers attacking him to people at his event. They have a field operation, run attack ads, and plaster voters who might be amenable to Cruz with mailers.”
Cruz is no dope. As a result of the pressure, he has now changed his tune, at least in Iowa. He published an op-ed piece in the Des Moines Register on January 6 entitled “I’m Fighting For Farmers Against Washington.”
In it, he not only supports the Renewable Fuel Standard, he calls for eliminating the “blend wall” in the current policy which limits the amount of ethanol to no more than 15%. “If allowed full market access, mid-level ethanol products like E25 or E30 could prove quite popular with American consumers, who are increasingly concerned with fuel economy,” Cruz wrote in the Register.
Sure, Ted. That makes perfectly good sense. If 10% ethanol reduces average fuel economy by 3%, let’s make the blend 30% ethanol and reduce mileage by 9%. Way to go, Senator. That’s the kind of leadership on important issues America needs! The problem will be solved one day, when Americans no longer use gasoline to power their cars. Then Iowa farmers will have to find a way to force America to make electricity from corn.
Last weekend, some of the fastest and most powerful tuner cars in North America gathered at the Pocono raceway for a one-of-a-kind, 1600′ side-by-side racing event. There were a number of thousand-plus horsepower cars in attendance running on highly toxic and leaded racing fuels, but the car that won? That car was running E85.
Delivering more than 1000 horsepower to the wheels, the Switzer Performance-built USE Pro Nissan GTR that won the Pocono Slipstream event last weekend went a long way towards convincing its competition that E85 is a viable fuel for high-performance cars. “The car did its job,” says Tym Switzer, the head of Switzer Performance and former sponsor of Gas 2 ::cough:: send money ::cough-cough:: It was smooth and consistent at the start of each run, it tracks straight, and he keeps accelerating strongly throughout each pull. Everything performed perfectly, and I’m glad he got to have the experience of winning an event like this.”
Whether or not you agree with the thinking behind their creation, tuner cars — cars that have been torn down and tweaked for maximum horsepower and performance — are one of the most influential market factors in the automotive industry. Every time a video of a 7-second Toyota Supra breaks the million-view threshold on YouTube it creates new fans of the platform, and many of those go on to buy the Toyota Corolla and Camry models that keep the brand in business. Most carmakers know this, and it was precisely the popularity of the last-generation Nissan Skyline among the Fast and Furious crowd that led Nissan to bring the R35 GTR to the US with the hopes that the aftermarket industry would help make the GTR a credible challenger to cars like the Porsche 911 Turbo. At the 2015 Slipstream 1600 races, that Nissan GTR beat everyone — including the “Stage 3” twin-turbocharged Lamborghini Gallardo from Underground Racing shown, above (which was ID’ed as a “Stage 2 with heads” twin-turbocharged Lamborghini Gallardo from Underground Racing after it didn’t win).
Job done for Nissan, then — but what about E85?
“We run all our competition cars on E85,” explained Tym, when I called him to ask about the car earlier today. This comes, of course, after years of his Oberlin, Ohio-based shop turning out dozens of E85-powered cars that not only make more power than their gasoline-powered, factory-spec counterparts, but do so without a fuel economy penalty, as well. “It just works.”
You can find out more about ethanol manufacturing absolutely not negatively impacting food costs the way the oil lobbyists want you to believe that they do by clicking a bunch of these links, and find out more about the Switzer Performance USE GTR at the company’s website. While you’re there, definitely feel free to tell them they should sponsor us again.
E85 Powered Switzer Nissan GTR at Pocono
Source | Images: TalonTSi97 Videos, via Switzer Performance.
Both the American Farm Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics are showing that turkey prices are still higher than usual. Despite what the people behind The National Turkey Federation lobby are saying, however, ethanol and the Renewable Fuels Standard are not to blame. But it’s drought and climate change, not ethanol, that are driving up food prices.
That’s something that even John Burkel, former head of the the Turkey Federation seems to agree with. “If there ever was an argument for a waiver or a partial-waiver to the RFS, it (was back in) 2012,” Burkel said in an interview with US News. “It’s not so much an anti-ethanol argument or anti-RFS argument … We’ve always said, ‘What happens when you have a drought?'”
What happens when you have a drought, for those of you who don’t understand how plants and farms work, is that you grow less produce. Less produce often means that prices go up as companies that depend on your product out-bid each other to get it, and then pass on the added cost of doing business to the consumers.
After a horrific Midwestern drought in 2012, US News reports that “the harvest in 2012 proved especially poor, as drought across the Midwest starved corn and soy crops, forcing farmers to pay more for the scarcer feed, and driving many out of business altogether. And the industry still hasn’t recovered.”
In this case, however, more expensive turkeys doesn’t necessarily mean a more expensive thanksgiving, as companies like Meijer- a regional grocery chain with 213 supermarkets in Michigan, Illinois, Ohio, Indiana and Kentucky- are using turkeys as a “loss leader” to get people into their stores. “A Thanksgiving meal really isn’t complete without the turkey,” said Matthew Craig, director of Meijer’s meat and seafood department, who put the birds on 50% off discount programs last weekend.
Still, things like “math” and “numbers” haven’t stopped the lobbyists from trying to blame whatever they can on ethanol and the Renewable Fuels Standard. And, for those of you who might listen to people who would blame the high corn prices “blamed” on the RFS, consider that corn prices …
NASDAQ Corn Price History
… are, in fact, very, very low at the moment, despite the increased use of corn-based ethanol by American consumers and plans to expand the fuel’s use to the US military. Of course, military leaders tend to have their heads in the future, as opposed to the dark, smelly place most ethanol opponents keep their heads (hint: it’s up the butt!).
Economists at Purdue University told the Chicago Tribune that turkey production could being to recover from the 2012 drought next year- assuming the drought in California doesn’t keep spreading Eastward- thanks to low cost feed benefitting from corn’s historically low adjusted prices. “The low-priced feed is just coming in now,” said Corinne Alexander, an agricultural economist at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana. “By next year, we’ll be looking at lower turkey prices.”
So, that’ll be good news. Until then, though, keep your BS detectors at maximum- and be especially wary of people who cite things like BTU density as the end-all, be-all of understanding fuels. I’m sure they’ll show up, however, and I’ll be sure to personally insult their characters and question the parentage of their children in the comments section at the bottom of the page. Get your flame suits ready, pop some popcorn, and enjoy the show!
The world has seemingly moved on from biofuels like ethanol, which was once hailed as the panacea to America’s alternative energy woes. Many biofuel companies have gone belly up or, at best, continue to muddle along with small-scale pilot plants after backlash from former supporters swept on in the “Food vs. Fuel” debate.
Even as electric cars and plug-in hybrids dominate alternative fuel headlines, POET-DSM has quietly begun large-scale production of its patented cellulosic ethanol at its “Liberty Plant” in Emmetsburg, Iowa, reports Media Matters. The plant will take 570 million pounds of leftover plant waste and convert it into 20 million gallons of usable ethanol fuel per year when it reaches full production, eventually ramping production up to 25 million gallons per year.
While that’s but a small drop in the bucket of America’s daily oil consumption, critics have called POET’s cellulosic ethanol a non-existent fairy tale. The prospect of turning otherwise useless plant waste into a cleaner-burning fuel is a tempting one, and an independent study by Argonne National Labs estimates that POET’s cellulosic ethanol emits 96% fewer emissions than the fuel it replaces. The waste will all be locally sourced from within 45 miles of the plant, with many farmers producing about one ton of agricultural waste per acre each year. That’s more than enough biomass to keep the POET plant operating at full capacity.
Ethanol hasn’t gotten a lot of love these days, with lawsuits seeking (and failing) to halt the sale of E15 and former allies turning against it as new studies revealed it wasn’t as green or clean as proponents had suggested despite widespread consumer support. POET has been working hard for years at making cellulosic ethanol viable and visible in America.
Can POET changes the hearts and minds of alt-fuel fans with its waste-based ethanol?
After a slow start to the 2014 Formula 1 season, Fernando Alonso put in a spectacular drive in China to put his Ferrari F14T onto the podium behind the dominant Mercedes Silver Arrows but ahead of the 4-times champion Red Bull Renaults of Daniel Ricciardo and Sebastian Vettel. Alonso is one of the best drivers- if not the best driver- in the sport today, but many suspect that Ferrari’s sudden return to form might have more to do with a new blend of Shell racing fuel than Alonso’s talent.
Indeed, others in the F1 paddock- most notably the Red Bull director, Helmut Marko– have claimed that an optimized fuel blend could be worth some 3 tenths per lap, and that’s a huge difference in F1. Marko, also, pinned Alonso’s performance on a new blend of Shell fuel, saying “Ferrari made a clear leap forwards in China. They have a new fuel. And we’ll have some new fuel soon as well … maybe we will have it at the next race in Spain (this weekend).”
OK, so Ferrari has a new Shell fuel that makes more power- so, why do I think it’s a biofuel? Because Shell has been supplying its LeMans teams with biofuel since 2009, and has been blending ethanol into its regular pump fuels for years. As such, it should be allowed to use octane-boosting ethanol compounds in its fuel.
Formula 1’s own website explained the new fuel rules like this back in 2013 …
Formula One cars run on petrol, the specification of which is not that far removed from that used in regular road cars. Indeed, the FIA regulations state that the rules are “intended to ensure the use of fuels which are predominantly composed of compounds normally found in commercial fuels and to prohibit the use of specific power-boosting chemical compounds.”
… those “specific power-boosting chemical compounds” referred to by F1 were present in the old “witches’ brew” fuels from the last turbo era of F1. One fuel by Esso, designated RD1, was reported to be composed of 45% benzyl alcohol, 25% methyl alcohol, 25% high octane gasoline, 3% acetone, and 2% nitro-benzine. Those fuels were banned from the sport due, in part, to their incredible toxicity.
Ethanol compounds are present in Shell’s commercial and retail/mass-market fuels. Ethanol has a much higher equivalent octane rating than gasoline- which helps to maximize safe boost, and can deliver thermal efficiency numbers far superior to gasoline (when an engine is properly optimized for it, of course). Add the “green” angle of ethanol being a renewable fuel and the fact that a higher ethanol blend would surely meet whatever CO2 emissions standards the FIA has in place and its place in the new Ferrari F1 fuel blend becomes almost certain.
Or, you know, maybe not.
What do you think, dear readers? Is Ferrari slipping in some 130 octane biofuel under the guise of green renewability, or is someone feeding Ferrari’s power unit some Toluene while no one’s looking? Let us know what you think is going on in the comments, below. Enjoy!
A pair of new reports from the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) may have finally buried the worldwide push for mass biofuel production. The pair of reports finds that, once everything is factored in, ethanol and other biofuels can actually be worse for the environment than standard petrol products.
The reports, which can be read in full here and here, come to the conclusion that while biofuel production can decrease greenhouse gas emissions by 30% to 90%, there are many other factors to consider. Land and water use, for one, and as well as the increased potential for conflict relating to the whole food-for-fuel debate.
One look at the numbers reveals a startling story. In 2000, over 90% of the U.S. corn crop went to feed people and livestock, with just 5% going towards ethanol production. In 2013, ethanol consumed 40% of the U.S. corn crop, with 45% feeding livestock and just 15% going towards feeding people. Consider also that U.S. produces 40% of the world’s entire corn stock, and you can see how ethanol production is fueling hunger-driven unrest in the developing world.
It’s a bad scene, and the U.N. finally recognizes it.
The new reports are a major reversal from the IPCC’s 2007 report, which called for greater global cooperation towards mass production of ethanol and other biofuels. In recent years though, biofuels have come under fire from both the right and left for massive government subsidies, and not being sustainable or clean enough. Automakers have even joined in the fight, lobbying against an effort to allow some gas stations to carry E15 (or 15% ethanol) gasoline.
With this latest salvo, the already-flagging biofuel industry may have finally been dealt its deathblow. Electric cars have soared in popularity, and a vast investment into improved combustion engine technology has given consumers more fuel efficient options than ever. There are other, non-edible plants that could be used for biofuel production, but it seems like the only real benefit to corn ethanol fuel is for those who want to go really, really fast.
So at least there’s that.
It wasn’t long ago that the alternative fuel media was abuzz with the potential of ethanol, but out-of-date mandates threaten to add to gas prices and dismantle the government’s ethanol policy. Now the whole industry could be at risk.
Very quietly in November of 2013, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed scaling back the amount of corn ethanol in gasoline from 14.4 to 13 billion gallons. To the ethanol industry this was a massive blow – because frankly the U.S. is not really using corn ethanol for anything else other than blending with gasoline. Now due to political push back, the EPA seems to be standing down, and the results could be even worse.
Ethanol has been added to gasoline for decades now, with the so called “blend wall” being at 10%. The purpose of adding ethanol to gasoline was to sell gasoline at the lowest volumetric price and to meet mandates set by the government for alternative fuel use. Of course this meant some nice subsidies for corn growers, and soon a lot of that corn being grown in the U.S. was not going to the dinner table, but rather into the gas tank.
In 2007 the Bush Administration took ethanol to new heights by setting a series of annual mandates that would increase the amount of ethanol blended into gas. These mandates were based on the, at the time, steady demand for gas. As many of us remember though, gas prices shot through the roof, the economy bottomed out in 2008, and suddenly people were paying closer attention to their their wallets rather than the low fuel light on the dash.
But the mandates stayed in place. So while demand for gas dropped by around 6%, the EPA still had to increase the amount of available ethanol based on old data set by the mandates. Some analysts claim this action has actually added cost to the gallon of gas at the pump by as much as 15 cents, and could add even more.
So in November the EPA was going to tweak the outdated mandates. But it sounds like that’s not going to happen thanks to political pressure from the ethanol lobby, which may have shot itself in the foot with this move. By keep the mandates in place, gas prices could go up as much as 50 cents per gallon. The Renewable Fuels Association takes a different view,claiming that the more ethanol in fuel, the less the fuel costs.
Here’s the thing though; if gas prices do indeed go back up (as they seem to be doing), the ethanol industry could find itself as the scapegoat. There could be calls to scrape the ethanol mandate completely, and there have been calls to cut corn subsidies as well. What happens to the ethanol industry then?
Consumers have fallen out of love with ethanol, and with gas prices once again rising in anticipation of the summer season, this could be the final blow for the fledgling industry.
Andrew Meggison was born in the state of Maine and educated in Massachusetts. Andrew earned a Bachelor’s Degree in Government and International Relations from Clark University and a Master’s Degree in Political Science from Northeastern University. Being an Eagle Scout, Andrew has a passion for all things environmental. In his free time Andrew enjoys writing, exploring the great outdoors, a good film, and a creative cocktail.
When the great Dale Earnhardt died in a horrific, head-on crash at Daytona in 2001, his number 3 was informally retired by team owner Richard Childress. Now, more than a decade later, the number 3 returns to Daytona with Richard Childress’ grandson, Austin Dillon. Dillon, for his part, wasted no time in returning the number 3 to glory, scoring the pole position at the 2014 Daytona 500 race with a black and white no. 3 Chevrolet … powered, in part, by American Ethanol.
Childress and his RCR NASCAR teams have been vocal supporters of ethanol’s use in reliable, high-performance engines for years- as well as tacit supporters of the Renewable Fuels Act. Add to all of the above the fact that NASCAR racers have successfully logged more than 5 million miles on an ethanol/gasoline Sunoco fuel mix without fuel-related failures in recent years, and you can see why we’re all so interested in Dillon’s progress here at Gas 2. Go, Austin!
You can read more about Austin’s chase for Daytona glory with American Ethanol in the company’s official press release, below. Enjoy!
American Ethanol Enhances Partnership with Richard Childress Racing and Driver Austin Dillon in 2014
WELCOME, NC – American Ethanol is enhancing its partnership with Richard Childress Racing and driver Austin Dillon for the 2014 NASCAR season. Beginning with the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series race at Phoenix International Raceway on March 2, Dillon will race the No. 3 American Ethanol Chevrolet SS in select races during the 2014 season.
“American Ethanol is extremely pleased to once again partner with Austin Dillon, Richard Childress and the entire RCR team to help promote a sustainable homegrown American fuel that is better for our environment, reduces our dependence on foreign oil and creates jobs right here in the U.S., while revitalizing rural economies across America and saving consumers at the pump,” said Tom Buis, CEO of Growth Energy.
American Ethanol, launched by Growth Energy and the National Corn Growers Association along with the support of other partners, is a breakthrough brand that seeks to expand consumer awareness of the benefits of ethanol and E15. Since the program launch for the 2011 season, NASCAR drivers have run more than 5 million miles on renewable Sunoco Green E15.
“We want to show the people coast-to-coast there is a great alternative to imported oil and our association with NASCAR and RCR is doing that extremely well,” said Jon Holzfaster, a Paxton, NE farmer and chairman of the National Corn Growers Association’s NASCAR Advisory Committee. “Ethanol is also responsible for bringing a rural renaissance from Main Street to the family farm.”
American Ethanol will also serve as a major associate sponsor for Dillon’s No. 3 Chevrolet for the full 2014 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series season joining Dow, Cheerios, Realtree Outdoors, Bass Pro Shops and the University of Northwestern Ohio.
“Homegrown biofuels like American Ethanol have stepped up to help our nation’s economy,” said Dillon. “NASCAR drivers have run more than 5 million competitive miles on Sunoco Green E15 and I know we will reach even more milestones together. I am proud to wear the American Ethanol colors in NASCAR and I hope I can bring them to Victory Lane in the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series in 2014.”
Dillon is an official spokesperson for American Ethanol, the most commercially-viable alternative that America currently has to offset the economic impact of foreign petroleum. Corn ethanol reduces emissions by 59 percent. And by strengthening America’s energy independence, ethanol helps create American jobs – studies have shown that for every $1 sent overseas for oil, $1.55 leaves the U.S. economy.
Source | Images: American Ethanol.
Brazilian sugar and ethanol producers saw near-record profits in 2013 with growth of nearly 19% year-over-year. Despite the increased production and profits Brazil has seen, however, UNICA President Elizabeth Farina cited a report which pointed out that “during the past year, producers have spent nearly 15 percent of their revenues on debt servicing,” as opposed to new equipment, land, etc. needed to replicate or exceed this year’s crop. You can read more on the story, below.
Ethanol output from Brazil’s main sugar production region is up this year, but mills face financial woes that will adversely impact future harvests, the industry said Tuesday. The amount of sugar milled this harvest through December 1 rose nearly 60…
Just about every time we write a post about ethanol- be it about a 2000 hp ethanol-fueled hypercar that makes 400% more power than the gas version but still gets the same MPG or about the US military switching its mobile units to biofuels– someone starts harping about ethanol raising food prices. Despite the fact that the farmers who make the food will tell you that energy (read: gas and oil) is the biggest factor in food costs and the fact that the whole food vs. fuel “debate” (if you can call it that) was started by the science-deniers at the AAPS, however, the idea that ethanol raises the price of food is still “out there”.
A few weeks ago, Fuels America (a pro-RFS lobbying group) released the following graphs- which I’m going to call my “Top 3 Graphs That Prove Ethanol Does NOT Raise Food Prices”. Enjoy!
1. Price of Ethanol is Down, Food Prices Still High
The price of corn is the lowest it’s been in three years, yet food prices have not come down from corn’s historic, 2012 highs. This year, the USDA is forecasting a record breaking corn crop in the US. In fact, back in October they updated their corn inventory estimate by 25% (!). Accordingly, we have reached a three year low in corn prices- with corn trading at under $4.50 a bushel at the beginning of November, compared to the 2012 peak of $8.49.
2. Only 16% of Food Prices Determined by Farms
Only 16% of grocery costs can be traced back to farm inputs, like corn or wheat. The rest goes to costs like energy (oil and gas), transportation (again, oil and gas), packaging (oil-based plastics), marketing, and labor.
2=3. Oil is Driving Up Food Prices
According to the World Bank, oil, not corn, is what has been steadily driving up global food prices over the last decade. Sure, corn is a factor- but it’s just one of many, complicated factors that goes into just 16% of grocery costs. Crude oil and refined fuel prices, meanwhile, remain the number one determinant of global food prices. The cost of energy from oil is integral to so much of the 84% we discussed in graph no. 2, above, that when the price of oil goes up, food prices must follow closely behind.
Fighter jets + ethanol, it’s a calculation that Lockheed Martin recently announced a significant investment in. Lockheed is hoping to secure what it calls, “clean, secure, and smart energy” by buying into a company called Concord Blue. That company gained notoriety in the energy business when it developed a closed-loop, commercially proven, non-incineration process that recycles nearly any form of waste, including landfill waste and sewage, into pure ethanol.
I don’t often quote my fellow writers, but when Tina Casey summed up the story about Lockheed Martin investing heavily in ethanol biofuels earlier in the week, she absolutely nailed it. When Lockheed Martin Goes Green, It’s Game Over for Fossil Fuels. You can check out the rest of Tina’s excellent word-smithery in this article, which originally appeared on Cleantechnica, below. Enjoy!
When a major defense contractor like Lockheed Martin lays down some heavy stakes in the green energy field, you know it’s only a matter of time before fossil fuels lose their headlock on the global energy market. Lockheed recently teamed up with…
Though modern China has risen like a slumbering dragon to become an economic powerhouse, there are still plenty of old-school holdover traditions, like the extensive use of bamboo as scaffolding for working on modern buildings. The rest of the world has taken notice, with everything from mountain bikes to concept cars embracing this natural, durable, and easily renewable material.. A new study reveals that bamboo could also be used as an economically viable, cost-competitive replacement for gasoline.
Bamboo is a high-energy plant that shares a lot in common with ethanol feedstocks like switchgrass, but has even more benefits. Bamboo is a perennial plant that grows tall and fast, and requires very little input on the part of people. The study, conducted by the Imperial College London, used a hot water bath to pre-release the bamboo’s natural sugars, followed by saccharification with a commercially-available enzyme cocktail.
The most economically-feasible fuel produced by this test cost just $1.83 per gallon, or about 48-cents per liter, if you include a 60-cent-per-gallon tax credit. Even without that tax credit, the cost of $2.43 a gallon is still almost a dollar cheaper than the average cost of a gallon of gas these days. China has plenty of bamboo to go around, and could provide for a large chunk of their energy needs with such an energy crop.
Ethanol has taken a lot of blows to the head in the past few years, falling from government-backed grace as hybrids and EVs take center stage. But the market is far from decided, and breakthrough, cost-effective fuel based on bamboo could swing the tides back in favor of ethanol.
More likely though, this is another breakthrough which we’ll never hear from again.