Batteries no image

Published on October 12th, 2008 | by Anthony Cefali

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Where We’re Going We Won’t Even Need Lithium: A Neurotic Look at Our Energy Future

October 12th, 2008 by  
 

Editor’s Note: Gas 2.0 writer Karen Pease has written a response to this post entitled “Lithium Counterpoint: No Shortage For Electric Cars.”

So I stumbled across a time machine the other day and made my way into the future. I noticed something rather bizarre while I was riding my hover-board and wearing a pair of Air McFlys. First I couldn’t pump any more gas into my Delorean, so I asked the good people of the undisclosed future what they used for fuel. They used lithium-powered batteries, and their supply was running out…

For the record, I support all forms of alternative energy.  Anything but oil I say, it’s a relic of the Cold War as far as I’m concerned.  But what will be the future of energy?  Well, my time machine wasn’t completely accurate.  While I sincerely hope that we can establish an electric infrastructure, it appears that the market will decide our energy future (for more on the economics, read my last post).

In the scientific community, we keep running into this massive roadblock known commonly as thermodynamics.  It’s an intimidating word for an intimidating world-view.  Simply, thermodynamics states that we just reuse matter.  Matter cannot be created or destroyed, it can only be converted.  It appears that we will only be converting matter to energy for the next, oh I don’t know, maybe million years or so?  Sorry, my imagination couldn’t take me much further past 2015 (plus I had a broken flux-capacitor).

There is a huge philosophical implication here.  Won’t we eventually run out of everything we can possibly use for energy?  Following this logic, that would mean that we could only use ethanol from corn to power the world’s economy.  I believe in progress above all, and I sincerely hope that someone, somewhere is thinking about completely redesigning the engine.  According to William Tahil of the Meridian International Research Group, the Earth only has 35 million tons of Lithium available and we only know where to find 15 million tons of that total.  I know that seems like a lot, but remember what we used to think about oil?  Our great grandfathers probably shouldn’t have bathed in it for health reasons and our futures.

So maybe it is the Woody Allen inside of me talking, but isn’t it totally feasible that we run out of lithium someday just like we are running out of gasoline?  The age of cheap gasoline is over, and soon the age of relatively cheap gasoline will be a memory as well.  As a nation we hardly even blinked.  There was some yelling by that old guy running for president about removing a gas tax to save us from high prices, but I feel like people would rather just deal with the price hike than change lifestyles.

After a bit of research I found that the lithium supply more closely mirrors our silicon supply.  We have enough of it to theoretically meet our demands for now and the foreseeable future, its just that most of it is currently tied up.  Lithium is a highly reactive element and is very rarely found on its own, ready to make into a lithium battery (like silicon, which is readily found in sand, but needs to be separated to be useful).

I know this all seems a little far-fetched, but just think about what pulling lithium from our ecosystems would do to them.  All ecosystems are cyclic and each part is important to how it runs on its own.  We won’t fully understand how lithium fits into the world until we start pulling it out.  If everyone drove electric cars (and more than one, like a normal American family), imagine how much lithium would be needed!  On the other hand, not tapping into lithium for electric cars would be like not doing homework because the universe is expanding.  It just doesn’t make economic sense.  It’s best to ignore these very large and general fears because they are inevitable.  But there is one thing that we can do, especially a nation as rich as America.  We can strive for efficiency.

We should not worry so much about a new energy infrastructure as much as we should worry about being efficient with the supplies we do have.  Efficiency is key to never having an energy crisis again.  I got some great feedback on my last post stressing efficiency over all forms of alternate energy, and I couldn’t agree more with that sentiment.  We’re not talking just about transportation, but we need American industries to stop wasting gasoline and investing in more sustainable energy sources.  If we had been worrying all along, none of this would be an issue.

It’s a fast rule of economics that we never run out of anything because when we do we just find a new resource to fill the void.  Sorry to get neurotic again, but that is an awfully scary concept.  What happens when we get to the point where there is nothing else to switch to?  I guess worrying about that is a lot like worrying about the sun burning out.  But just because it is so far away, doesn’t mean it won’t happen.

If you tend to worry a lot like me, follow these links:

Thanks to Matt Comi for the image, under Flickr’s Creative Commons.

Here is the rest of William Tahil’s research on the element Lithium.


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About the Author

Anthony is a student at the University of Wisconsin-Madison majoring in biology as well as English. He became interested in the biofuel initiative after getting a job in the Raines Lab of Petroleum Alternatives at the university turning sugars into biofuels. He is the first to admit that he doesn't fully understand everything that he does or is trying to do, but enjoys doing his bit to help the environment. Anthony has very few plans for his future, but is interested in how natural systems work and how urban development changes these systems. On a good day, Anthony enjoys riding his bike really far away and reading Kurt Vonnegut books.



  • michael Bryant

    There is penny of iron to make internal combusion engines that run off hydrogen.

  • michael Bryant

    There is penny of iron to make internal combusion engines that run off hydrogen.

  • Nat

    Problem: We don’t burn Lithium. It’s recyclable.

  • Nat

    Problem: We don’t burn Lithium. It’s recyclable.

  • BioHzd78

    Hmm, so many people are screaming about the ‘evils’ of oil, now the same people are finding issues with the various solutions that they propose, in part or whole.

  • BioHzd78

    Hmm, so many people are screaming about the ‘evils’ of oil, now the same people are finding issues with the various solutions that they propose, in part or whole.

  • Eric Mair

    Remember, they key word is renewable or sustainable as opposed to alternative. Recycleable is good too because it is sustainable.

    It’s true that matter can’t be created or destroyed but we are talking about energy for which we have an (to all intents and purposes) infinite supply from the sun.

    And corn is not the only source of ethanol even in Amaerica, in fact we are rapidly moving away from feedstocks which conflict with human food sources. Cellulosic ethanol uses biomass waste as feedstock, and then there is algae….

    Your research might be a bit wobbly around silicon; it is the most abundant element in the earth’s crust, which means there is quite a lot more of it than the 35 million tons of lithium you are claiming. I like your holistic thinking around taking stuff out of its natural cycle though.

    Finally, the sun will eventually either implode or explode, apparently in about 4 million years. But long before that happens life on earth will have ceased to exist. I’m not sure if that will happen quickly or slowly but it is a long time away and it is inevitable whether you worry or don’t worry. Just be happy! 🙂

  • Eric Mair

    Remember, they key word is renewable or sustainable as opposed to alternative. Recycleable is good too because it is sustainable.

    It’s true that matter can’t be created or destroyed but we are talking about energy for which we have an (to all intents and purposes) infinite supply from the sun.

    And corn is not the only source of ethanol even in Amaerica, in fact we are rapidly moving away from feedstocks which conflict with human food sources. Cellulosic ethanol uses biomass waste as feedstock, and then there is algae….

    Your research might be a bit wobbly around silicon; it is the most abundant element in the earth’s crust, which means there is quite a lot more of it than the 35 million tons of lithium you are claiming. I like your holistic thinking around taking stuff out of its natural cycle though.

    Finally, the sun will eventually either implode or explode, apparently in about 4 million years. But long before that happens life on earth will have ceased to exist. I’m not sure if that will happen quickly or slowly but it is a long time away and it is inevitable whether you worry or don’t worry. Just be happy! 🙂

  • kss

    “Efficiency is key to never having an energy crisis again.”

    You should probably read this:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jevons_paradox

  • kss

    “Efficiency is key to never having an energy crisis again.”

    You should probably read this:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jevons_paradox

  • Anthony Cefali

    Eric,

    My goal for this post was to be a bit satirical and point out that we can’t worry too much, because anxiety is a waste of our own natural resources. If we worry about every little detail and when we are going to run out of everything, eventually one day we will. All we can really do is be happy and live our lives as efficiently as possible.

    Thanks for the feedback! Keep thinking happy thoughts, positivity always makes its way to others who don’t feel the same way.

    ~anthony

  • please see my 2 reports in http://www.worldlithium.com

    Also watch for further information at the Industrial Minerals symposium, Lithium Supply & Markets in Santiago, Chile, 26th -28th January 2009

    Keith Evans

  • please see my 2 reports in http://www.worldlithium.com

    Also watch for further information at the Industrial Minerals symposium, Lithium Supply & Markets in Santiago, Chile, 26th -28th January 2009

    Keith Evans

  • Annony

    First of all, lithium isn’t a fuel, it’s a medium. It doesn’t get used up, and even when the battery is too shot to hold a charge, it’ll go back to the factory, and get recycled into new batteries, just like we do with lead now.

    Second, the easy to get lithium is in ores and brines on land, but once that’s exhausted, there’s essentially unlimited amounts in the oceans. It just takes more energy to extract it.

    In the end, availability of lithium is a non-issue; what matters is availability of energy. With enough nuke plants and electric cars, the entire world can live affluently without oil.

  • Annony

    First of all, lithium isn’t a fuel, it’s a medium. It doesn’t get used up, and even when the battery is too shot to hold a charge, it’ll go back to the factory, and get recycled into new batteries, just like we do with lead now.

    Second, the easy to get lithium is in ores and brines on land, but once that’s exhausted, there’s essentially unlimited amounts in the oceans. It just takes more energy to extract it.

    In the end, availability of lithium is a non-issue; what matters is availability of energy. With enough nuke plants and electric cars, the entire world can live affluently without oil.

  • david

    Oil is a “relic of the cold war”? Are you an idiot? Oil was a huge energy source long before the Cold War and will continue to be long after.

    You have beclowned yourself. You lack a basic understanding of history, science, and economic. Try reading a textbook, it might help.

  • david

    Oil is a “relic of the cold war”? Are you an idiot? Oil was a huge energy source long before the Cold War and will continue to be long after.

    You have beclowned yourself. You lack a basic understanding of history, science, and economic. Try reading a textbook, it might help.

  • BR

    To quote Harlan Ellison:

    “The two most common elements in the universe are Hydrogen and stupidity.”

    As long as we can get this thing: http://www.iter.org/ working we can create energy from one of those elements.

  • BR

    To quote Harlan Ellison:

    “The two most common elements in the universe are Hydrogen and stupidity.”

    As long as we can get this thing: http://www.iter.org/ working we can create energy from one of those elements.

  • Mike

    Worried about lithium supplies?!? Don’t be. It’s already becoming old technology and is simply a stop-gap until better energy storage is feasible.

    And besides, electric cars really don’t make much sense long-term anyway. The internal combustion engine is wonderfully robust and efficient technology, and combined with a renewable hydrocarbon (algae farms) will ultimately be the best choice for vehicles.

  • Mike

    Worried about lithium supplies?!? Don’t be. It’s already becoming old technology and is simply a stop-gap until better energy storage is feasible.

    And besides, electric cars really don’t make much sense long-term anyway. The internal combustion engine is wonderfully robust and efficient technology, and combined with a renewable hydrocarbon (algae farms) will ultimately be the best choice for vehicles.

  • Noah Nehm

    Here’s one thing to consider: Iron fluorophospate cathodes can accomodate both sodium and lithium in their chemistry. This gives rise to the possibility of Sodium-Ion batteries replacing their lithium counterparts if price or availability becomes an issue.

  • Noah Nehm

    Here’s one thing to consider: Iron fluorophospate cathodes can accomodate both sodium and lithium in their chemistry. This gives rise to the possibility of Sodium-Ion batteries replacing their lithium counterparts if price or availability becomes an issue.

  • Lithium is not the end all be all of our energy future. Attitudes like this only serve to focus undue attention to a non-existent problem and waste resources.

    Lithium is a bit player in the energy future. It will have it’s place but it isn’t going to be replacing oil in any way shape or form.

    Oil is a fuel, lithium is a storage device. The entire premise of the article is faulty.

  • Brock

    Supply exceeding demand is the key to never having an energy crisis again. Efficiency does not reduce demand or increase supply. Only prices and wants have that effect.

    The overall point of not worrying about lithium at this time is a good point to make, as these things go, but you’ve got to have supporting arguments that actually support the argument.

  • Da Gy

    Great views on the subject.

    Have you had a look at “The Energy Machine of Joseph Newman”.

    Seams to be like “flux capacitor” as can run on small amount of energy and produce an incredible output…

  • Lithium is not the end all be all of our energy future. Attitudes like this only serve to focus undue attention to a non-existent problem and waste resources.

    Lithium is a bit player in the energy future. It will have it’s place but it isn’t going to be replacing oil in any way shape or form.

    Oil is a fuel, lithium is a storage device. The entire premise of the article is faulty.

  • Brock

    Supply exceeding demand is the key to never having an energy crisis again. Efficiency does not reduce demand or increase supply. Only prices and wants have that effect.

    The overall point of not worrying about lithium at this time is a good point to make, as these things go, but you’ve got to have supporting arguments that actually support the argument.

  • Da Gy

    Great views on the subject.

    Have you had a look at “The Energy Machine of Joseph Newman”.

    Seams to be like “flux capacitor” as can run on small amount of energy and produce an incredible output…

  • Gabriel Hanna

    It doesn’t sound, to me, as though you know as much thermodynamics as you think you do.

    Lithium is not a source of energy that can do work. It is a component of a system designed to store energy that can do work.

    Even at maximum theoretical effiency, the amount of energy available to do work will continue to decrease–this is the second law of thermodynamics.

    Having no batteries to charge is not what makes an energy crisis. It is having nothing with which to charge them.

    What charges your batteries? Is it nuclear power, fossil fuels, or solar power (which thermodynamically includes wind and water).

    Each is a finite resource. The Earth only has so many tons of nuclear and fossil fuels, and only intercepts so much sunlight in a year.

    We will have energy crises as long as we rely on energy. Until someone figures out how to use magic or the Force, we are stuck with converting energy to work. and hence with energy crises.

    Efficiency just means it takes longer to get there.

    We need NEW sources of useful work. Efficiency is a stopgap.

    And if you are relying on batteries of any kind–especially ones charged by burning fossil fuels–then you are making the problem worse, not better. It is more efficent to use energy directly, like an engine does, than to convert to electricity, with losses, store in the battery, with losses, and convert the electricity to work, with losses.

  • Gabriel Hanna

    It doesn’t sound, to me, as though you know as much thermodynamics as you think you do.

    Lithium is not a source of energy that can do work. It is a component of a system designed to store energy that can do work.

    Even at maximum theoretical effiency, the amount of energy available to do work will continue to decrease–this is the second law of thermodynamics.

    Having no batteries to charge is not what makes an energy crisis. It is having nothing with which to charge them.

    What charges your batteries? Is it nuclear power, fossil fuels, or solar power (which thermodynamically includes wind and water).

    Each is a finite resource. The Earth only has so many tons of nuclear and fossil fuels, and only intercepts so much sunlight in a year.

    We will have energy crises as long as we rely on energy. Until someone figures out how to use magic or the Force, we are stuck with converting energy to work. and hence with energy crises.

    Efficiency just means it takes longer to get there.

    We need NEW sources of useful work. Efficiency is a stopgap.

    And if you are relying on batteries of any kind–especially ones charged by burning fossil fuels–then you are making the problem worse, not better. It is more efficent to use energy directly, like an engine does, than to convert to electricity, with losses, store in the battery, with losses, and convert the electricity to work, with losses.

  • gs

    “Finally, the sun will eventually either implode or explode, apparently in about 4 million years.”

    4 BILLION years, although it’s possible the sun will extinguish life on earth in the next billion years or so.

  • gs

    “Finally, the sun will eventually either implode or explode, apparently in about 4 million years.”

    4 BILLION years, although it’s possible the sun will extinguish life on earth in the next billion years or so.

  • This should also be very bad news to manic-depressives…….

    But I can’t be bothered about silly things like … WHAT’M I GONNA DO!!!!!

  • This should also be very bad news to manic-depressives…….

    But I can’t be bothered about silly things like … WHAT’M I GONNA DO!!!!!

  • Mark Buehner

    Well, if you insist on worrying about the big picture, the sun is going to burn the Earth up eventually, and if we survive that it will burn itself out completely over time. That ol 2nd law of thermodynamics puts a definite lifespan on life in this universe. You’ve got a few billion years to think about it, but thats it, finito.

  • Mark Buehner

    Well, if you insist on worrying about the big picture, the sun is going to burn the Earth up eventually, and if we survive that it will burn itself out completely over time. That ol 2nd law of thermodynamics puts a definite lifespan on life in this universe. You’ve got a few billion years to think about it, but thats it, finito.

  • So, uh, what’d ja power dattime machine wit’, sport? Good thoughts? Nice to know you’ve heard of the cold war. Relics are “objects associated with the Saints, which bodies were the living members of Christ and ‘the temple of the Holy Ghost’ (1 Corinthians 6:19) and which are by Him to be raised to eternal life and to be glorified are to be venerated by the faithful.” (Catholic Encyclopedia) Got nothin’ to do with the Cold war, but with that other War.

  • So, uh, what’d ja power dattime machine wit’, sport? Good thoughts? Nice to know you’ve heard of the cold war. Relics are “objects associated with the Saints, which bodies were the living members of Christ and ‘the temple of the Holy Ghost’ (1 Corinthians 6:19) and which are by Him to be raised to eternal life and to be glorified are to be venerated by the faithful.” (Catholic Encyclopedia) Got nothin’ to do with the Cold war, but with that other War.

  • KenB

    Nothing is forever, not even the human race. My bet is that we will go extinct, mostly because of our own limitations, long before we run out of every energy source.

    So is this optimism or pessimism? I’m not sure, but I don’t see any way for us to hold on until the sun burns out. We as a species are not competent enough to do that.

  • KenB

    Nothing is forever, not even the human race. My bet is that we will go extinct, mostly because of our own limitations, long before we run out of every energy source.

    So is this optimism or pessimism? I’m not sure, but I don’t see any way for us to hold on until the sun burns out. We as a species are not competent enough to do that.

  • Tom Klein

    We do not havean energy crisis. We have plenty of energy available – for several hundred years anyway – from coal nuclear natural gas and alternatives like wind, geothermal, solar when they become economically attractive. Also, bio fuels as long as their production does not impact food production – cellulosic and algae derived – are interesting alternatives. We do have a crude oil, or generally liquid energy crisis. Liquid energy is the only form of energy suitable for transportation. All energy, coal, electricity and natural gas are convertible into liquid fuel. The technical problems, while are significant, are solvable and less challenging and less expensive than alternative energies like wind and solar. One of the problem these solutions are facing, that they are being ignored because are being accused of contributing to global warming. This is nonsense. In the geologic history of the earth, carbon dioxide concentrations were higher, often by orders of magnitude than they are today. In fact, if you think about it all the fossil fuels that we have and burning have been derived from atmospheric carbon dioxide

  • Tom Klein

    We do not havean energy crisis. We have plenty of energy available – for several hundred years anyway – from coal nuclear natural gas and alternatives like wind, geothermal, solar when they become economically attractive. Also, bio fuels as long as their production does not impact food production – cellulosic and algae derived – are interesting alternatives. We do have a crude oil, or generally liquid energy crisis. Liquid energy is the only form of energy suitable for transportation. All energy, coal, electricity and natural gas are convertible into liquid fuel. The technical problems, while are significant, are solvable and less challenging and less expensive than alternative energies like wind and solar. One of the problem these solutions are facing, that they are being ignored because are being accused of contributing to global warming. This is nonsense. In the geologic history of the earth, carbon dioxide concentrations were higher, often by orders of magnitude than they are today. In fact, if you think about it all the fossil fuels that we have and burning have been derived from atmospheric carbon dioxide

  • Hale Adams

    Run out of resources? When we have the whole darn Universe to play with, and the means (since 04 October 1957) to get “out there”?

    Anthony, grab a clue!

    *yeesh*

  • Hale Adams

    Run out of resources? When we have the whole darn Universe to play with, and the means (since 04 October 1957) to get “out there”?

    Anthony, grab a clue!

    *yeesh*

  • Aaron

    If your interested in real science visit http://www.gasresources.net where you will learn that oil cannot come from fossils or any biological material because of the 2nd law of thermodynamics.

    Oil is a renewing resource produced deep, 100+ km, in the earths crust and travels from the depths through deep fissures.

    ‘The high-pressure genesis of petroleum hydrocarbons has been demonstrated using only the solid reagents solid iron oxide, FeO, and marble, CaCO3, 99.9% pure, wet with triple-distilled water.’

    The earth has always produced oil, continues to produce oil and will alway produce oil. Its the product of an iron core and a carbon based crust rubbing together.

    The old unscientific ‘fossil’ fuel story is maintained to cause fears of oil scarcity to drive the price up and keep it up.

  • Aaron

    If your interested in real science visit http://www.gasresources.net where you will learn that oil cannot come from fossils or any biological material because of the 2nd law of thermodynamics.

    Oil is a renewing resource produced deep, 100+ km, in the earths crust and travels from the depths through deep fissures.

    ‘The high-pressure genesis of petroleum hydrocarbons has been demonstrated using only the solid reagents solid iron oxide, FeO, and marble, CaCO3, 99.9% pure, wet with triple-distilled water.’

    The earth has always produced oil, continues to produce oil and will alway produce oil. Its the product of an iron core and a carbon based crust rubbing together.

    The old unscientific ‘fossil’ fuel story is maintained to cause fears of oil scarcity to drive the price up and keep it up.

  • Steve

    Hydrogen could end up to be the most efficient means of storing energy.

  • Steve

    Hydrogen could end up to be the most efficient means of storing energy.

  • Yosemite1967

    There’s a key flaw in the author’s logic: We’re not running out of gasoline–we’re running out of freedom.

    If the foreign-oil-company-bribery-bought regulations that were put into place in 1973 in the United States to keep American oil companies (except the biggest, Bush-owned ones) from functioning were rescinded, the HUGE deposits, which are currently sitting untapped, would be opened up, and (1) we would have plenty of petroleum again, (2) America would become the world’s principle supplier of oil again, (3) gas prices would drastically lower (especially in the U.S.A.), and mom-n-pop oil companies (which were all forced out of business by those regulations) would crop back up.

  • Yosemite1967

    There’s a key flaw in the author’s logic: We’re not running out of gasoline–we’re running out of freedom.

    If the foreign-oil-company-bribery-bought regulations that were put into place in 1973 in the United States to keep American oil companies (except the biggest, Bush-owned ones) from functioning were rescinded, the HUGE deposits, which are currently sitting untapped, would be opened up, and (1) we would have plenty of petroleum again, (2) America would become the world’s principle supplier of oil again, (3) gas prices would drastically lower (especially in the U.S.A.), and mom-n-pop oil companies (which were all forced out of business by those regulations) would crop back up.

  • Steve

    i think there’s a problem with your time machine. Within 5 years, let alone 15, chemical batteries will be completely replaced with ultracapacitors which will probably be made of carbon, which we seems to have plenty of around…

  • Steve

    i think there’s a problem with your time machine. Within 5 years, let alone 15, chemical batteries will be completely replaced with ultracapacitors which will probably be made of carbon, which we seems to have plenty of around…

  • Perhaps Algae.

    Or microbs that make fuel.

    Liquid or compress H2 is terible.

    NH3 is much better for a whole host of reasons.

    Easy to make, liquid at much higher temperatures, and lower pressures, and 50% more H in every molecule.

    NH3>>>fuel cell>>>electric cars>>>no carbon emmission.

    When you get the N from atmosphere, the H from water, and put it together, it is totally clean and natural when you use it. The N goes back to the atmosphere, and the H to water.

  • Perhaps Algae.

    Or microbs that make fuel.

    Liquid or compress H2 is terible.

    NH3 is much better for a whole host of reasons.

    Easy to make, liquid at much higher temperatures, and lower pressures, and 50% more H in every molecule.

    NH3>>>fuel cell>>>electric cars>>>no carbon emmission.

    When you get the N from atmosphere, the H from water, and put it together, it is totally clean and natural when you use it. The N goes back to the atmosphere, and the H to water.

  • Man of common sense & reas

    Lithium wont work as a fuel for the future unless batteries become very efficient, and longer lasting.

    Currently lithium batteries “burn” out become oxidized every 4-5 years

    Thousands of dollars will have to be spent to buy new batteries to replace the old ones.

    There is only 35 million tons of easily recoverable lithium in the world,and only 15 of that is available now.

    Lots of extra energy would be needed to extrat lithium from other sources. A giant Lithium infrastructure would have to be built. The US would have to build hundred of powerplants to power all the electric cars.

    This is a call to end suburbs. Suburbs are stupid anyway. Citys are the technological evolution of our civilization. Cities are highly efficient, suburbs are wasteful. The great infrastructure of highways and cars wouldnt be needed if we all lived in cities.

  • Man of common sense & reason.

    Lithium wont work as a fuel for the future unless batteries become very efficient, and longer lasting.

    Currently lithium batteries “burn” out become oxidized every 4-5 years

    Thousands of dollars will have to be spent to buy new batteries to replace the old ones.

    There is only 35 million tons of easily recoverable lithium in the world,and only 15 of that is available now.

    Lots of extra energy would be needed to extrat lithium from other sources. A giant Lithium infrastructure would have to be built. The US would have to build hundred of powerplants to power all the electric cars.

    This is a call to end suburbs. Suburbs are stupid anyway. Citys are the technological evolution of our civilization. Cities are highly efficient, suburbs are wasteful. The great infrastructure of highways and cars wouldnt be needed if we all lived in cities.

  • Interesting article, though not particularly realistic. EV’s and Gas Hybrids will still not be found in large numbers by 2010-2012 as they are not sustainable and not particularly green. The migration through Clean Diesel, biodiesel and syndiesel blends to B100 and S100 have the best chance for success. If you want to know why the world is using petroleum based oil, research the funding of Prohibition by Rockefeller and Standard Oil.

  • Interesting article, though not particularly realistic. EV’s and Gas Hybrids will still not be found in large numbers by 2010-2012 as they are not sustainable and not particularly green. The migration through Clean Diesel, biodiesel and syndiesel blends to B100 and S100 have the best chance for success. If you want to know why the world is using petroleum based oil, research the funding of Prohibition by Rockefeller and Standard Oil.

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